Wheaton College Norton, Massachusetts
Wheaton College
Sociology

Departmental News Archive

  • Thumbnail image of Service Sociology and Academic Engagement in Social Problems Service Sociology and Academic Engagement in Social Problems

    A new book edited by Trevino and McCormack asks, “What do sociologists do to respond to social problems, and how do they do it?”

    Edited by A. Javier Trevino and Karen M. McCormack

    This new book challenges sociologists and sociology students to think beyond the construction of social problems to tackle a central question: What do sociologists do with the analytic tools and academic skills afforded by their discipline to respond to social problems? Service Sociology posits that a central role of sociology is not simply to analyse and interpret social problems, but to act in the world in an informed manner to ameliorate suffering and address the structural causes of these problems.

    This volume provides a unique contribution to this approach to sociology, exploring the intersection between its role as an academic discipline and its practice in the service of communities and people.With both contemporary and historical analyses, the book traces the legacy, characteristics, contours, and goals of the sociology of service, shedding light on its roots in early American sociology and its deep connections to activism, before examining the social context that underlies the call for volunteerism, community involvement and non-profit organisations, as well as the strategies that have promise in remedying contemporary social problems.

    Presenting examples of concrete social problems from around the world, including issues of democratic participation, poverty and unemployment, student involvement in microlending, disaster miitigation, the organization and leadership of social movements, homelessness, activism around HIV/AIDS and service spring breaks, Service Sociology and Academic Engagement in Social Problems explores the utility of public teaching, participatory action research, and service learning in the classroom as a contribution to the community.

  • Exploring Society Visually

    by John Grady Visual sociology enters the mainstream. Here’s how…

    by John Grady

    "Exploring Society Visually" consists of fifteen visual essays and slideshows (vignettes) produced to complement various chapters in three introductory sociology textbooks: Dalton Conley’s You May Ask Yourself,  Kerry Ferris and Jill Stein’s The Real World, and Anthony Giddens et. al. Introduction to Sociology, all published by W.W. Norton. Each of the vignette addresses an abiding concern or issue in the study of society today.

    “Unintended Consequences”

    “What do we celebrate today?

    “Young people and altruism?”

    "Who are our superstars and what do they want from us?"

    “Good people and dirty work”

    “Is women’s work still never ending?”

    “How are whites’ racial attitudes changing?”

    “How have kids’ worlds changed?”

    “Do Americans support civil liberties?

    “Occupational prestige in cartoons”

    “Contemporary shrines”

    “Can chronic conditions be solved?”

    “Is sex out of control?”

    “Girly Girl”

    “Is demography destiny?”

  • Miranda's Great Adventure

    As an ESL teacher living in Korea I have a particular skill set. I’m a pro with band-aids. I can fix anything with twine and glue.

    Miranda Joy in class

    Miranda Joy in class

    As an ESL teacher living in Korea I have a particular skill set. I’m a pro with band-aids. I can fix anything with twine and glue. I can break out into song and dance about any topic based on the daily lesson, be it weather, counting, clothes, household rooms, or colors. My charades skills have no equal. If you think a crying child is impossible to handle, you have simply not applied enough stickers. An average day for me involves blood, tears, and loose teeth.

    The ability to teach anything involves the ability to plan, schedule, coordinate large groups of people, and above all, maintain a level head in the face of madness. A teacher must be aware of themselves at all times within the classroom. A teacher can hold the attention of a classroom full of children while working their way through triathlon of structured activities and lessons. In a day I run a marathon. I can tell you exactly what I will be doing in five-minute increments while at work. I have back up lessons for each class and one completely alternate lesson for absolutely crazy days.

    Miranda in class

    Miranda in class

    But where does the sociological aspect come in to play? Teaching in a foreign country demands you learn the culture, the language, the diet, the walk, and the dress of that country before you can even begin to teach. Korean children cannot be understood without first understanding their parents. Korean parents cannot be understood without understanding their parents.

    Korea’s crazy push into a high-tech and modern world of cheap soju and crazy love motels has everything to do with how one should approach teaching in Korea. I’m in charge of socializing children on both Korean behavior and American behavior. I must choose what words my kids learn, the slang they should pick up, and the attitude they assume within my classroom. I’m not allowed the luxury of simply asking “what” of Korea, I must always ask “why” as well.

    Teaching English allows me to really examine the role of language as both a barrier between societies, as well as a dynamic and fluid structure within societies. I must constantly explain why I say ‘knock it off’ when I don’t want them to remove things from their desk, or why English speakers say ‘hang up’ the phone when children have only known cell phones can put a lot into perspective. Tell a child they are eating gummies instead of jellies in Korea and -- surprise! -- you have just told them they are eating spiders. Jokes simply do not translate between languages and puns are doomed from the start.

    Coming to Korea allowed me to step into a complete unknown and structure myself. I go to the gym, volunteer at a homeless shelter twice a week, participate in several writing based groups in Seoul. I keep a detailed schedule of my weeks and I hold myself to those commitments. I don’t flinch at Korea’s more creative meals, and I can navigate the Seoul metro in my sleep. I visit museums, I still go on tourist tours of Korea, and I travel to surrounding countries whenever possible.

    So much of my time in Korea has been spent working to simply understand Korea. I have come to love the idea of ‘couples attire’ and ajumma and ajushi privilege. I will forever crave kimchi with my meals. I know the lyrics to several kpop songs, and when I visit the doctor it costs less than my morning coffee.

    This is my last year teaching. This is also my last year in ROK. I will miss everything about my time here, but I also acknowledge that I am ready to move on. Traveling for me is all about learning to fall in love with uncomfortable bedfellows. It means reevaluating what I know to be correct. I went to the Philippines last year for vacation and wound up staying in Manila and volunteering in a program for feeding and clothing homeless children in the streets. I spent Christmas cooking a meal for over 200 people. Life is funny and fickle and sometimes you wind up eating silkworm pupa and finding it tastes pretty darn good.

    Miranda Joy graduated from Wheaton College in 2012 with a degree in sociology. She participated in the Bhutan program where she worked with the city municipalities as well as the UN in trash collection and coordination. She has been an ESL instructor in Korea since 2012, and – guess what? -- you can find out the meanings of unfamiliar terms by some online exploring.

  • Photo of Chris Kelley smiling, in a red shirt Putting Sociology Skills to Work

    Chris Kelley ‘96 finds sociology is a natural fit for market research and consulting

    Since graduating from Wheaton with a degree in Sociology I have built a 15+ year career in market research. Across my career, I have guided leaders at global companies, universities, and government agencies on their product and marketing strategies based on research that I designed, conducted, analyzed, and presented. I currently work at Forrester Research in Cambridge as a Senior Data Engagement Director. Basically, I work with consumer technology companies (Apple, Microsoft, Samsung, Google, etc.) helping them better understand consumer attitudes, adoption, and usage of technology.

    One of the most gratifying aspects of my career is that the skills I use every day are directly related to the skills I developed in my Sociology studies at Wheaton. These skills include those learned in my classes, in the ample one-on-one time I spent with my professors, and the time that I spent researching, writing and defending my Senior Honor Thesis. These experiences taught me how to design and conduct research, analyze data, translate that data into an easily-understood story, and speak in front of an – often intimidating – audience of professionals.

    When I work with my clients they often ask me where I got my MBA. I always enjoy responding - gently correcting them - that my academic background is in Sociology, not Business. I then explain how Sociology is a natural fit for market research and consulting because of what you learn about the research process from design to presentation. I then go on to say how Wheaton’s academic environment and committed Sociology Department faculty were ideal for developing these skills.

    Chris Kelley ‘96

  • Chris Wellin reviews "Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston" and other films

    Read the review

    Wellin_Review

  • Saving the Children

    By John Grady
      
    The dramatic decline in infant mortality has lifted a burden of sorrow.

    Real Photo Postcard of Mother with Dead Infant, ca. 1909. Courtesy of Luc Sante

    Real Photo Postcard of Mother with Dead Infant, ca. 1909. Courtesy of Luc Sante

    SAVING THE CHILDREN

    By John Grady

    Pictures of a dead child or other family member were common in the late nineteenth and very early twentieth centuries. It was a way of remembering someone who had never been photographed when they were alive. The pictures seem strangely morbid to us today due in part to the obvious efforts made to make the corpse look alive – eyes propped open, sitting, or even standing. Usually, the live people in the photograph dress formally and are emotionally composed.

    This photograph of a grieving working class mother and her dead child is quite different. We feel her desolation. We see her exhaustion in the slump of her shoulders, her body, and the left arm and hand dangling helplessly at her side. She has a blank stare, but her eyes are alive with sorrow. Her jaw is clenched. The woman standing directly behind the mother looks at her steadily with a gaze that is both tender and sad. This photograph is not a formal moment fixed in amber, but rather an instance of misery. The woman to the left has just turned toward the scene. The blurred motion is distinct enough to create a double exposure that makes the scene come alive and takes us back to a day in 1909 when, next to a plank house on a rough wooden porch, and somewhere in America, a mother grieved as her baby was being prepared for burial.

    When life expectancy improved from forty years to eighty over the course of the twentieth century, it didn’t mean that everyone on average just added another forty years to their lives. There were then, as now, many people who lived well beyond the average life expectancy. Many of us know people in their late eighties and nineties and many did back then. What improved life expectancy really meant was an enormous reduction in child mortality. It was babies and kids getting beyond the hurdles of childhood diseases and infections – and not dying -- that made it possible for many more people to live at all, and in time for a growing number to live quite long lives in good health. In 1900, the infant mortality rate (the number of deaths per one thousand live births for children one and under) was 162 per thousand. As of 2011, it is down to 6 per thousand. In other words, the odds were one out of 6 that a child born in 1900 would not live into a second year. Today, the odds are only one out of 167.

    When we factor in the fertility rate (the total number of children on average that women bear during their lifetimes), we summon up an even bleaker tableau. The fertility rate in 1900 was 6 children per woman. Multiply that by the infant mortality rate (162/1000 times 6) and you have 972/1000 or nearly a statistical certainty that in 1900 a women would lose a child under one year of age at some point during her child bearing years. Today women have a fertility rate of 2. Doing the numbers – 6/1000 times 2 – yields 12/1000, which means that the odds of a woman losing a child in 2013 is roughly one out of eighty.

    Today, young women -- like young men -- are exhorted to be all that they can be and strive to realize their dreams. What could possibly be wrong with wanting to “have it all”: material rewards, a challenging career, supportive relationships and a loving family with children. But, at the turn of the century mothers and grandmothers would never tell their daughters such a thing and instead reminded them that it was women’s lot to suffer. They weren’t being cruel. It was just that knew that it was certain that someday their daughters would be sitting in a chair like the woman in the photograph, holding a dead child, and drowning in sorrow.

    It still happens and when it does the grief is just as deep as it was for this woman whose name we do not know. But the dramatic decline in infant mortality not only ensures that human life is abundant, but also that much of the burden of sorrow for men, and especially women, has been lifted.

  • Charting Life

    by John Grady
    Life expectancy as a chronicle of civilization.

    US Life Expectancy for Men and Women, 1900--Present

     

    Life Expectancy for Men and Women in the United States, 1900 to the Present.

    Life Expectancy for Men and Women in the United States, 1900 to the Present.

     

     

    CHARTING LIFE

    by John Grady

    This is a simple line chart and easy to read. The vertical axis scales one type of information -- in this case, how many years someone born in the US might expect to live -- while the horizontal axis lists when people were born. A point on either line is an estimate based on projecting the death rates prevailing at that date into the future. Projecting a trend in this fashion, however, does not account for what the actual future might bring. Life expectancy in real time could be lowered by war, disease, famine, or a cataclysmic natural event. Conversely, our lives could extend beyond what was predicted at birth by improvements in living standards, medical care, and healthier lifestyles. For Americans, the big take away story from this chart is that the good far outweighs the bad.

    Throughout human history, average life expectancy was anywhere from 30 to 40 years at best. Around 250 years ago in Western Europe and the United States, things slowly began to change. There was more food available; public health measures were taken; medical science improved, and housing became more secure and comfortable. By 1900, life expectancy was almost 50 years. What happened during the next century was without precedent in human history. By 2000 life expectancy had nearly doubled and men and women on average lived into their late 70s and early 80s.

    Line charts are one of the best ways of visualizing a trend. They show direction: is it going up or down; is it even or uneven; curvilinear or cyclic? They show whether the rate of change is fast, slow, or non-existent. They also can be designed to include more than one line – in this case trends for men and women – and these can be easily compared. With these observations in mind, what does this chart tell us?
    • While the growth of life expectancy is a steadily progressive trend over the course of the century, it tends to slow down from the early 1950s on for both men and women;
    • Women tend to live longer than men and this discrepancy has generally widened since the beginnings of World War II. There is some evidence of a narrowing of the gender gap during the 1990s, which is probably due to men beginning to quit smoking in the 1960s in significant numbers, while women were just embracing the habit. There is a lag in outcomes for men and women because it takes about 30 years for the negative health effects of smoking to begin to take their toll – and for the positive effects of not smoking to have an impact.
    • Before 1945 changes in life expectancy were very volatile. They go up and down by one or two years of life expectancy from year to year. This volatility is most likely due to outbreaks of various infectious diseases. After World War II, mass vaccination and expanded health care probably accounts for how steady the trend becomes for both men and women.

    Because of the way that life expectancy is measured, it is very susceptible to being influenced by a dramatic increase in the death rate, even if that jump is limited to a very short period of time. The influenza epidemic of 1919 is considered the most lethal worldwide epidemic in history and killed more than 20 million people, 500,000 of them in the United States alone. This singular event was so massive that the slaughter it records leaves a distinct graphic trace on the chart as a plunging spike.

    Charts are one of the best ways of examining social indicators. When done well, they provide us with clear measures of patterns that we might not otherwise be aware. Nevertheless, the care we take in viewing them is only as good as the care that must be taken in their preparation as well as observing and collecting the original information. The data that went into making this chart on life expectancy is reliable for just these reasons, and -- because we can imagine what it measures – these simple lines speak volumes about what American civilization accomplished for its people over the last century.

  • Member of "Serve the City" in Brussels Dressing the Hair of a Homeless Woman What Can You Do? Service Sociology and Social Problems

    By A. Javier Trevino  

    A new type of sociology is devoted to the practical amelioration of social problems.

    By A. Javier Trevino

    Studying sociology usually means that you will be dealing with many issues that are troubling, harmful, and just plain distressing. As such, it is understandable that you may feel that “it’s all bad news,” that something needs to be done, that things need to change. But how?

    If sociology is the discipline that studies social problems—like crime; poverty; inequalities based on social class, race, and gender; epidemics; environmental problems, and so on—you may want to know what “solutions” it has to offer. Indeed, you may be interested in finding out what you can do to make a difference.

    Member of "Serve the City" in Brussels Dressing the Hair of a Homeless Woman

    Member of "Serve the City" in Brussels Dressing the Hair of a Homeless Woman

    Concern with the problems of urban life and their alleviation goes back to the early days of American sociology at the turn of the twentieth century. As sociology was becoming more and more popular in colleges and universities around the country, it basically took two forms: the study of sociological theory and the practice of ameliorative reform and service. At that time, most people thought of sociology as a form of philanthropy and courses such as Methods of Social Amelioration, Charities and Corrections, and Preventive Philanthropy were common. Undergraduate sociology programs were even more focused on training in charity and social service work.

    After its founding in 1892, the University of Chicago established the first full-fledged department of sociology in the United States. At least initially, sociologists there were diligently engaged with applied social reform and philanthropy. Indeed, the founder of the department, Albion W. Small, pointed out that sociology “is good for nothing unless it can enrich average life; our primary task is to work out correct statements of social problems and valid methods of solving them.”

    Along with the development of sociology at Chicago, between 1885 and 1930, a unique, active, and engaged sociology was being implemented in many of the “settlement houses,” or neighborhood centers that provided services to poor immigrants, that had been founded in major cities throughout the United States. Settlement sociologists, like Jane Addams, who in 1889 cofounded the most famous of the settlement houses, Hull House, in one Chicago’s desperately poor neighborhoods, considered the settlement as an experimental effort in the solution of the social problems of the modern city. Addams, and others like her, sought empirical data on various social problems through detailed descriptions of the conditions of groups living in poverty. In addition, Hull House provided a wide variety of community services, including securing support for deserted women, conducting a kindergarten and day nursery, implementing various enterprises for neighborhood improvement, and establishing a relief station.

    A new type of sociology that is devoted to the practical amelioration of social problems and that has its heritage in the early American sociology of relief and reform is now emerging. Service sociology is a socially responsible and mission-oriented soci¬ology of action and alleviation. Motivated by care and compassion, service sociology is concerned with helping people meet their pressing social needs. The sociology of service believes that the personal needs of one individual are not so different from the collective needs of others in similar life circumstances. This belief is why service sociology treats individuals as people in community with each other. The main goal of service sociology is to help people by meeting their essential needs and concerns through service. The various types of service activities for helping others is vast and they include: community counseling, coaching, mentoring, tutoring, conflict resolution, community gardening, friendly visiting, community cleanup, block activities, giving circles, crime prevention, community organizing, advocacy, voter registration, participatory action research, service learning, and mediation. And you can probably think of other similar service activities.

    Indeed, the time is now ripe for service sociology and for student involvement in it. Consider that in the past few years there has been a renewed public interest in volunteering and social service—a so-called “compassion boom”—particularly among the Millennial generation. Today, over one-quarter of all Americans take part in some form of community service with over 64 million volunteers serving. In 2011 these volunteers dedicated nearly 8 billion hours to volunteer service, and the economic value of this service was $171 billion. And across the country, millions of volunteers are involved in a range of critical areas, including tutoring and teaching; participating in fund-raising activities or selling items to raise money for an organization; collect¬ing, preparing, distributing, or serving food; and contributing general labor or providing transportation. What is more, no less than 26% of college students volunteered in 2010, and over 3 million of them dedicated over 300 million hours of service to communities across the country, primarily in activities involving youth mentoring, fundraising, and teaching and tutoring.

    In addition to community service, many citizens across the country are engaged civically. Indeed, between 2008 and 2010, 8.4 % of American adults worked with neighbors to fix a community problem; 49.6 % donated money, assets, or property with a combined value of more than $25 to charitable or reli¬gious organizations; and in 2010, 41.8 % of residents voted in the 2010 national election.

    In recent years we have also seen the emergence of several high-profile national service initiatives, such as President Obama’s United We Serve campaign, the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act, the annual Martin Luther King Jr. National Day of Service, and the 9/11 National Day of Service and Remembrance. This service work is being done by many ordinary people who are picking up the slack for a city, a state, a nation unwilling or unable to attend to many critical matters that directly affect thousands, even millions, of people. We have now entered an era in this country characterized by a culture of service—involving various forms of civic engagement, community service, and volunteerism—that allows people, as citizens, to work together to ease or mitigate the predicaments and uncertainties created by poverty, hunger, racism, sexism, epidemics, calamities, and so on. It is precisely in this current culture of service, with its numerous pressing needs and concerns, that we can consider the emergence of a sociology of social problems based on service.

    The motto of the International Sociology Honor Society, Alpha Kappa Delta, is “to investigate humanity for the purpose of service.” See http://www.alphakappadelta.org/Home.php

    To learn more about service sociology you can read the following sources:
    Treviño, A. Javier. 2011.“Teaching and Learning Service Sociology.” Teaching/Learning Matters [News¬letter for the American Sociological Association’s Section on Teaching and Learning in Sociology] 40(1):4–6.
    Treviño, A. Javier. 2012. “The Challenge of Service Sociology.” Social Problems 59(1):2–20.
    Treviño, A. Javier. 2013. “On the Facilitating Actions of Service Sociology.” Journal of Applied Social Science 7(1):95–109.
    Treviño, A. Javier, and Karen M. McCormack. 2014. Service Sociology and Academic Engagement in Social Problems. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

  • The Passion of Mission Hill

    “Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston” recorded the impact of desegregation and urban renewal. Professor Grady’s 1978 controversial documentary was recently featured at the MIT Urban Planning Film Series.

    Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston was featured at the MIT Urban Planning Film Series on November 14, 2014. John Grady led a discussion after the film.

    View of Mission Hill from Brigham Circle to the Mission Church

    View of Mission Hill from Brigham Circle to the Mission Church

    Here is how it was introduced by Karilyn Crockett, Martin Luther King Post-doctoral fellow at MIT:
    For anyone who likes Boston or who definitely does not, this film is for you. Boston's recent mayoral election offers a new opportunity to examine some of the city's most enduring problems related to race, place and the postwar economic development of its neighborhoods and downtown. Esteemed documentary filmmakers, Richard Broadman and John Grady conceived "Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston" (1978) as both snapshot and critique of big business-driven urban renewal. But don't worry this 60-min film is not pumped up policy drivel. First person accounts of residents coupled with raw newsreel reveal the physical and psychological impacts of rapid urban change from the frontline. View this fascinating document of Boston's recent past and learn the backstory of many of the political, economic and racial tensions that continue to inform the city's construction agenda today. It includes in depth consideration of racially segregated public housing developments in the Mission Hill/Heath Street neighborhood as well as the downtown creation of Faneuil Hall/Quincy Market as contested tourist destination, and offers a compelling look at multiple approaches to 20th century U.S. city building.

  • 650_Maya-Ennis_0335-e1370890107252-122x122 Traveling scholars

    Maya Ennis ’14 wins Gilman award to study in Egypt.